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Posts tagged ‘Alpha’

Hebrew Lectures

Alphabet 14:22
Gutturals and Resh 0:54
Letters with Dots (Dagesh Lene) 4:25
Final Letter Forms 1:52
Letters that Look Similar 7:05
Letters that Sound the Same 3:18
Vowels Introduction 11:59
Vowels Full Chart 9:07
Defective Writing 2:03
Syllables – Part 1 7:38
Syllables – Part 2 10:31
Furtive Patach 2:12
Chart: Vowel Chart
Two Kinds of Shewa 4:22
Distinguishing Vocal/Silent Shewa – Part 1 3:16
Distinguishing Vocal/Silent Shewa – Part 2 10:19
Distinguishing Vocal/Silent Shewa – Part 3 6:48
Compound Shewa 7:17
Grammar Overview 6:22
Inseparable Prepositions 2:43
Rule of Shewa 9:05
Accents 3:37
Metheg 10:28
Maqqeph 4:04
Qamets-Hatuph 5:53
Genesis 1:1-5 13:55
Dagesh Lene 9:07
Dagesh Forte 13:29
Conjunctive Dagesh Forte 7:00
Mappiq 4:48
The Article 4:09
Article and Inseparable Prepositions 3:42
Uses of the Article 5:29
Quiescent Letters 14:11
Gutturals and Resh – Part 2 4:53
“Coal Mine” Letters 2:31
Article before Weak Letters 11:40
Inseparable Prepositions on Definite Nouns – Part 2 5:41
Chart: Article before Weak Letters
Some Definitions 2:02
The Noun 13:49
Gender Flip in Plural 4:28
The Dual 8:51
Sentences 6:07
Coordinating Conjunction 19:12
Translating the Conjunction 4:50
Vowel Reduction in Nouns 12:19
Segholate Nouns 8:48
Common Monosyllabic Words 11:52
Preposition Min 11:25
The Adjective 18:35
Syntax of the Adjective – Attributive 12:18
Syntax of the Adjective – Predicate 11:05
Syntax of the Adjective – Substantive 4:48
Comparisons with Min and Ki 8:39
Diphthongs 12:51
Historical Vowel Chart 2:16
Hebrew Words 5:01
Hebrew Verbs 7:57
Perfect Tense 27:00
Parsing Verbs 4:32
Guttural Verbs in the Perfect Tense 11:41
Translating the Perfect Tense 7:43
Sign of the Accusative 9:10
Syntax of Verbal Sentences 11:25
Subject – Verb Agreement 10:47
Pronouns 5:14
Independent Personal Pronouns 15:02
Independent Personal Pronouns – Uses 4:09
Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives 11:32
Uses of the Demonstrative 11:50
Noun Case 11:31
The Construct Relationship 6:21
Changes to Construct Noun Endings 8:20
Changes to Construct Noun Vowels 10:37
Syntax of the Construct 12:32
Translating the Construct Relationship 11:28
Pronominal Suffixes 4:16
Pronominal Suffixes on Li and Bi 9:16
Syntax of Li + Suffixes 2:05
Uses of Yaish and Ain 10:49
Perfect Tense III-Aleph Verbs 9:27
Relative Pronoun Asher 4:52
Introduction to Pronominal Suffixes 3:55
Pronominal Suffixes on Masculine Singular Nouns 10:03
Pronominal Suffixes on Feminine Singular Nouns 9:21
Pronominal Suffixes on Masculine Plural Nouns 18:41
Pronominal Suffixes on Feminine Plural Nouns 4:20
Summary: Pronominal Suffixes on Nouns 5:40
Nouns Suffixes and Definiteness 3:07
Introduction to Pronominal Suffixes on Irregular Forms 3:36
Suffixes on Bain and Shaim 4:49
Suffixes on Av and Ach 9:10
Suffixes on Segholate Nouns 8:09
Suffixes on Nouns with Diphthongs 2:27
Suffixes on Miscellaneous Forms 1:48
Suffixes on Im and Eit 5:36
Suffixes on El and Al 2:31
Summary 2:17
Participles 6:01
Active Participle 3:54
Irregular Forms of the Active Participle 5:24
Syntax of the Active Participle – Attributive 8:33
Syntax of the Active Participle – Predicate 9:51
Syntax of the Active Participle – Substantive 5:10
Pronominal Suffixes on the Sign of the Accusative 8:58
Imperfect Tense 18:12
II-Guttural Verbs and III-Guttural Verbs 5:34
Syntax of the Imperfect Tense 21:40
Directive He 6:14
Relative Clauses (Resumptive Pronouns/Adverb) 8:07
Uses of the Tenses in Sequence 13:20
Past-Time Narrative Sequence 13:15
Future-Time Narrative (and Prophetic) Sequence 16:17
Varying Terminology 17:44
Historical Development 10:47
Accent Shift 5:54
Haya + Waw Consecutive 11:00
Chart: Sequence Tenses (Color) (Black & White)
Introduction to Stative Verbs 2:17
Stative Verbs in the Perfect Tense 8:40
Stative Verbs and Adjectives 7:47
Stative Verbs in the Imperfect Tense 8:40
Interrogative Sentences – Part 1 11:29
Interrogative Sentences – Part 2 8:26
Introduction to the Volitional Mood 2:50
Imperative 15:48
Jussive 4:34
Cohortative 4:26
Particle Na 1:48
Negative Al 8:01
Indirect Volitives (Volitive Sequence) 18:55
Waw Disjunctive 16:28
Passive Participle 5:58
Syntax of the Passive Participle 10:01
Pause 12:37
Pronominal Suffixes on Min and Ki 13:12
Infinitive Construct 6:15
Pronominal Suffixes on Infinitive Construct 18:17
Nominal Uses of Infinitive Construct 19:50
Verbal or Adverbial Uses of Infinitive Construct 27:38
Negating Infinitive Construct 3:01
Infinitive Absolute 12:00
Syntax of Infinitive Absolute 25:34
Negating Infinitive Absolute 2:22
Pronominal Suffixes on Yaish and Ain 8:04
Pronominal Suffixes on Ayaih and Od 5:24
Introduction to Pronominal Suffixes on Verbs 7:36
Pronominal Suffixes on the Perfect 23:02
Pronominal Suffixes on the Imperfect 11:07
Pronominal Suffixes on Imperatives 13:03
Cardinal Numbers 1-10 24:00
Ordinal Numbers 4:52
Cardinal Numbers 11-19 8:44
Cardinal Numbers 20-99 5:58
Larger Numbers 15:41
Introduction to Verbal Stems (Binyanim) 15:42
Strategy for Learning Hebrew Verbs 9:03
Niphal 12:17
Translating the Niphal 3:46
Translating the Niphal – Passive 4:42
Translating the Niphal – Reflexive 5:59
Translating the Niphal – Reciprocal 3:21
Chart: Strategy for Learning Hebrew Verbs
Lecture Slides: Ross Chapter 26 Slides
Piel 25:44
Translating the Piel 2:43
Translating the Piel – Factitive 8:43
Translating the Piel – Denominative 2:34
Translating the Piel – Pluralizing / Intensive 2:55
Translating the Piel – Declarative 2:35
Lecture Slides: Ross Chapter 27 Slides
Pual 10:19
Translating the Pual 3:25
Hinneh 2:44
Hinneh: Statement of Existence 5:11
Hinneh: Statement of Presentation 3:59
Hinneh Clause + Imperative 9:35
Lecture Slides: Ross Chapter 28 Slides
Hithpael 10:48
Metathesis and Assimilation in the Hithpael 13:18
Translating the Hithpael 2:31
Translating the Hithpael – Reflexive 4:05
Translating the Hithpael – Indirect Reflexive 5:43
Translating the Hithpael – Reciprocal 3:47
Translating the Hithpael – Iterative 2:32
Translating the Hithpael – Estimative 3:23
Lecture Slides: Ross Chapter 29 Slides
Hiphil 21:38
Translating the Hiphil 1:12
Translating the Hiphil – Causative 7:15
Translating the Hiphil – Inner Causative 3:28
Translating the Hiphil – Denominative 1:41
Translating the Hiphil – Declarative 1:57
Translating the Hiphil – Misc / Unclassified 2:24
Lecture Slides: Ross Chapter 30 Slides
Hophal 12:21
Translating the Hophal 2:47
Lecture Slides: Ross Chapter 31 Slides
Introduction to Weak (Irregular) Verbs 9:02
I-Guttural 1:20
I-Guttural: Qal Imperfect 12:15
I-Guttural: Qal Imperative 3:24
I-Guttural: Qal Infinitive Construct 2:17
I-Aleph 5:12
I-Aleph: Qal Imperfect 8:05
I-Aleph: Qal Imperative & Infinitive Construct 3:12
Lecture Slides: Ross Chapter 32 Slides
I-Guttural (non-Qal) 1:20
I-Guttural: Niphal 7:09
I-Guttural: Hiphil 3:44
I-Guttural: Hophal 3:06
II-Guttural: Piel 7:07
II-Guttural: Pual 3:24
III-Guttural: Niphal 1:42
III-Guttural: Piel 1:20
III-Guttural: Hiphil 4:50
III-Aleph 1:44
III-Aleph: Niphal 4:09
Lecture Slides: Ross Chapter 33 Slides
Introduction to I-Nun Verbs 8:15
I-Nun: Qal 3:59
I-Nun: Qal Imperfect 8:23
I-Nun: Qal Imperative 5:29
I-Nun: Qal Infinitive Construct 13:55
Irregular Laqach 6:29
I-Nun: Niphal 11:49
I-Nun: Hiphil 4:11
I-Nun: Hophal 4:10
Lecture Slides: Ross Chapter 34 Slides
Introduction to I-Yod Verbs 2:49
I-Waw Qal 2:57
I-Waw: Qal Imperfect 8:37
I-Waw: Qal Imperative 5:04
I-Waw: Qal Infinitive Construct 2:50
I-Waw: Niphal 8:31
I-Waw: Hiphil 5:27
I-Waw: Hophal 4:13
I-Waw / III-Guttural: Hiphil 2:57
Irregular Halach 5:12
Original I-Yod Verbs 8:03
I-Yod: Qal Imperfect 4:56
I-Yod: Qal Imperative & Infinitive Construct 1:45
I-Yod: Hiphil 6:15
Lecture Slides: Ross Chapter 35 Slides
Introduction to III-He Verbs 8:50
III-He: Qal 19:07
III-He: Qal Jussive & Preterite 2:02
III-He: Qal Cohortative 2:06
Pronominal Suffixes on III-He Verbs 2:25
Derived Stems 22:22
III-He: Jussive & Preterite – Shortened Forms 7:36
Lecture Slides: Ross Chapter 36 Slides
Introduction to Doubly Weak Verbs 7:31
I-Guttural / III-He Verbs 1:52
I-Guttural / III-He: Qal 4:55
I-Guttural / III-He: Hiphil 6:03
Irregular Haya and Chaya 7:13
I-Nun / III-He Verbs 1:34
I-Nun / III-He: Qal 4:56
I-Nun / III-He: Hiphil 6:07
I-Waw / III-He: Hiphil 5:25
Single Letter Forms 6:01
Lecture Slides: Ross Chapter 37 Slides
Introduction to Hollow Verbs 1:34
Hollow Verbs: Qal 6:26
Hollow Verbs: Qal Perfect 3:11
Hollow Verbs: Qal Participle 3:00
Hollow Verbs: Qal Imperfect, Jussive, Preterite 11:18
Hollow Verbs: Qal Imperative & Infinitive Construct 2:20
Pronominal Suffixes on Qal Hollow Verbs 1:31
Stative Hollow Verbs 4:51
Irregular Bo 3:05
Hollow Verbs: Niphal 8:17
Hollow Verbs: Hiphil 6:09
Pronominal Suffixes on Hiphil Hollow Verbs 2:12
Hollow Verbs: Hophal 2:37
Hollow / III-Guttural Verbs: Hiphil 9:27
Lecture Slides: Ross Chapter 38 Slides
Introduction to Geminate Verbs 9:29
Geminates: Qal Perfect 9:30
Geminates: Qal Imperfect & Jussive 13:13
Geminates: Qal Preterite 0:56
Geminates: Qal Imperative 1:40
Geminates: Qal Infinitive Construct 1:47
Irregular Arar 4:02
Pronominal Suffixes on Geminate Verbs 1:32
Geminates: Niphal 8:28
Geminates: Piel 2:33
Geminates: Hiphil 5:22
Geminates: Hophal 5:05
Guttural / Geminate Verbs: Hiphil 4:20
Lecture Slides: Ross Chapter 39 Slides
Introduction to Minor Stems 2:42
Polel, Polal, Hithpolel 9:30
Poel, Poal, Hithpoel 4:13
Palel, Pulal, Hithpalel 2:20
Pilpel, Polpel, Hithpalpel 3:19
Pealal 3:10
Quadriliteral Verbs 3:17
Qal Passive 4:07
Hishtaphel 3:22
Lecture Slides: Ross Chapter 40 Slides
Total Time 35:07:42 

Aleph is A

ʾĀlep is the reconstructed name of the first letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician Aleph Phoenician aleph.svgSyriac ‘Ālaph ܐ, Hebrew Aleph א, andArabic ʾAlif ا.

The name aleph is derived from the West Semitic word for “ox“, and the shape of the letter derives from a Proto-Sinaitic glyph based on a hieroglyph
which depicts an ox’s head.

A chart of the Ancient Hebrew Alphabet is available through the Ancient Hebrew Research Center –

The name of the first letter in the Hebrew alphabet is aleph. Aleph is a Hebrew word meaning ox as can be found in Ps 8:7 – all sheep and oxen, and also the beasts of the field,

4,000 years ago, the Hebrew alphabet was written with pictographs. The original form for this letter was a picture of an ox head.

This letter represents the ideas of strength and power, the characteristics of the ox. This pictograph may also represent a chief or other leader.

This letter has an ah sound as in the word ox, or an eh as in the word elk.

Some Hebrew words that begin with this letter are el meaning mighty one, but often translated as god, av, meaning father, aniy meaning I, and adon meaning lord.

Early form
The ancient hebrew aleph can be seen in this rock inscription found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Penninsula, which was inscribed about 1500 BC.

Middle form
Around 1000 BC the Hebrew alphabet evolved into a simpler form that usually called Paleo-Hebrew. This form can be seen in the Tel Dan inscription that dates to about 850 BC.

This form of the letter was adopted by the Greeks and became the letter alpha, note the similarity between the Hebrew name aleph and the Greek name alpha.

Second Middle form
The aleph was also written in a slightly different form and this form can be seen on the Moabite Stone which is also dated at about 850 BC.

This letter, the first letter in the Hebrew alphabet became the number 1.

Late form
Around 400 BC this letter evolved again, as it appears in this scroll fragment found in the Dead Sea Caves dated to the first century BC or first century AD.

This letter is very similar to the Modern Hebrew letter as can be seen in the Aleppo Codex dated to about 1000 AD.

Al (Aleph)
By Jeff A. Benner


History & Reconstruction

The original pictograph for this letter is a picture of an ox head –  representing strength and power from the work performed by the animal. This pictograph also represents a chief or other leader. When two oxen are yoked together for pulling a wagon or plow, one is the older and more experienced one who leads the other. Within the clan, tribe or family the chief or father is seen as the elder who is yoked to the others as the leader and teacher.

The Modern name for this letter is aleph and corresponds to the Greek name alpha and the Arabic name aleph. The various meanings of this root are oxen, yoke and learn. Each of these meanings is related to the meanings of the pictograph . The root aleph() is an adopted root from the parent root el () meaning, strength, power and chief and is the probable original name of the pictograph .

The  is a shepherd staff and represents authority as well as a yoke (see the letter Lam). Combined these two pictographs mean “strong authority”. The chief or father is the “strong authority”. The  can also be understood as the “ox in the yoke”. Many Near Eastern cultures worshipped the god , most commonly pronounced as “el” and depicted as a bull in carvings and statues. Israel chose the form of a calf (young bull) as an image of God at Mount Sinai showing their association between the word  and the ox or bull. The word  is also commonly used in the Hebrew Bible for God or any god.

The concept of the ox and the shepherd staff in the word  has been carried over into modern times as the scepter and crown of a monarch, the leader of a nation.

These modern items are representative of the shepherd staff, an ancient sign of authority, and the horns of the ox, an ancient sign of strength.

In Modern Hebrew this letter is silent but was originally used as the vowel “a” as well as a glottal stop. The Greek letter “alpha” derived from the “aleph” is also used for the “a” sound.

The Early Semitic pictograph  was simplified to  and  in the Middle Hebrew script and continued to evolve into the  in the Late Hebrew script. The Modern Hebrew letter א developed out of the Late Semitic. The Middle Semitic was adopted by the Greeks to be the letter “A” and carried over into the Roman “A”. The Middle Semitic script  became the number “1” we use today.

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